Sandra J. Ley Gutiérrez

Assistant Professor

Department of Political Studies

Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE)

Web: https://sandraley.net/

Email: sandra.ley@cide.edu

EDUCATION

2014 Ph.D. in Political Science

Duke University

Fields: Comparative Political Behavior; Conflict and Violence

Dissertation: Citizens in Fear: Participation and Voting Behavior in the Midst of Violence

2010 M.A. in Political Science

Duke University

Approved with Distinction

2007 B.A. in Political Science and International Relations

Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas

Thesis: Decentralization and Electoral Autonomy: Determinants of Autonomy in the Local Electoral Institutes in Mexico, 1990-2004

Approved with Distinction

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2016-present Assistant Professor

Department of Political Studies, CIDE-Mexico City

2015-2016 Visiting Professor

Department of Political Studies, CIDE-Mexico City

2014-2015 Visiting Fellow

Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame

2013-2015 Security Consultant

México Evalúa

2014-2015 Expert for Mexico

Mexico Institute, Woodrow Wilson Center

2014 Local Senior Consultant for Mexico

Democracy International

2007-2008 Research Projects Coordinator

Parametría

PUBLICATIONS 

 Academic

“Poll Worker Recruitment: Evidence from the Mexican Case,” with Francisco Cantú (Forthcoming in Election Law Journal)

Trejo, Guillermo and Sandra Ley. 2017. “Why Did Drug Cartels Go to War in Mexico? Subnational Party Alternation, the Breakdown of Criminal Protection, and the Onset of Large-Scale Violence.” Comparative Political Studies. DOI: 10.1177/0010414017720703

Ley, Sandra. 2017. “To Vote or Not to Vote: How Criminal Violence Shapes Electoral Participation.”  Journal of Conflict Resolution, DOI: 10.1177/0022002717708600

John Aldrich, Gregory Schober, Sandra Ley, and Marco Fernández. 2017. “Uncertainty or Ambiguity? Sources of Variation in Ideological Placements of Political Parties,” Political Behavior, DOI: 10.1007/s11109-017-9406-8

Meseguer, Covadonga, Sandra Ley, and J.Eduardo Ibarra-Olivo. 2017. “Sending money home in times of crime: The case of Mexico.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 43(13): 2169-2192.

Ley, Sandra. 2017. “Security and Crime Issue Voting: Electoral Accountability in the Midst of Violence.” Latin American Politics and Society 59(1): 3-27.

Trejo, Guillermo and Sandra Ley. 2016. “Federalism, Drugs, and Violence. Why Inter-Governmental Conflict Stimulated Inter-Cartel Violence in Mexico.” Política y Gobierno 23(1): 9-52. Special bilingual volume on Democracy, Conflict, and Violence in Latin America.

Public policy reports

Chapa, Lilian y Sandra Ley. 2015. “Prevención del delito en México. ¿Cuáles son las prioridades?” México Evalúa. México, D.F.

Ley, Sandra. 2015. “Violence and Citizen Participation in Mexico: From the Polls to the Streets”. Briefing Series on Building Resilient Communities in Mexico: Civic Responses to Organized Crime. Justice in Mexico; Woodrow Wilson Center : San Diego; Washington, D.C.

Mizrahi, Yemile, Sandra Ley, Lilian Chapa and Leonel Fernández. 2014. “Mid-term Performance Evaluation of Crime Prevention Models in Mexico”. Democracy International-USAID.

Koloffon, Lilián, Leonel Fernández and Sandra Ley. 2014. “Prevención del delito en México. ¿Dónde quedó la evidencia?” México Evalúa. México, D.F.

De Buen, Néstor, Leslie Solís and Sandra Ley. 2013. “La cárcel: ¿Para qué?”. México Evalúa. México, D.F.

Villanueva, Roberto, José Rivera and Sandra Ley. 2013. “Pasos para la Memoria. Manual de Documentación de Casos de Víctimas de Violaciones de Derechos Humanos y del Delito”. Centro de Comunicación Social. México, D.F.

Ley, Sandra. 2007. “Independencia de los Órganos Electorales: Teoría y Evidencia para el caso mexicano”. In Instituto Electoral del Distrito Federal. Grandes Temas para un Observatorio Electoral Ciudadano, Vol. III. México: IEDF.

Publications in newspapers and magazines

Municipios bajo fuego”, Nexos, with Guillermo Trejo (February 2015)

Desapariciones y protesta”. Letras Libres. Polifonía Blog. (November 20, 2013)

Elecciones y violencia”. Letras Libres. Polifonía Blog. (July 11, 2013)

Lecciones desde Colombia”. Letras Libres. Printed edition. (April 2013)

Conteos comparados de la violencia en América Latina”. Letras Libres. Polifonía Blog. (November 28, 2012)

La insuficiencia de las bases de datos”. Letras Libres. Polifonía Blog. (September 19, 2012)

El desafío de contar a nuestros muertos”. Letras Libres. Polifonía Blog. (September 12, 2012)

¿Qué mide realmente el Índice de Estados Fallidos?Letras Libres. Polifonía Blog. (June 29, 2011)

WORK IN PROGRESS

“Mexico’s Drug Wars and the Remaking of Local Order” with Guillermo Trejo. In A. Giraudy, E. Moncada and R. Snyder, Inside Countries: Subnational Research in Comparative Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Forthcoming 2018).

“Participation in High-Risk Activism: Protesting Amid Violence” (In preparation for journal submission)

“Doing Business in the Context of Criminal Violence in Mexico,” with Magdalena Guzmán (Work in progress, in collaboration with the Sié Center at the University of Denver http://www.du.edu/korbel/sie/research/carnegie.html)

“High-Profile Criminal Violence: Why Drug Cartels Murder Government Officials and Party Candidates in Mexico,” with Guillermo Trejo (Under review)

“Can Drug Lords Replace the Median Voter in Democratic Elections? Evidence from Mexico’s Wild West,” with Guillermo Trejo and Javier Márquez (Work in progress)

“Indigenous Resistance to Drug Violence in Mexico. Why Indigenous Mobilization and Ethnic Autonomy Institutions Deter Criminal Violence,” with Shannan Mattiace and Guillermo Trejo (Work in progress)

“Electoral Institutions and Democratic Consolidation in the Mexican States, 1990-2004”. Working Paper 208. División de Estudios Políticos, CIDE. México, D.F., with Javier Aparicio.

HONORS, AWARDS AND FELLOWHIPS

2017 National Researcher Candidate, National Council for Research and Technology (CONACYT)
2013-2014 Inter-American Foundation Grassroots Development Fellowship
2012-2013 International Research Travel Fellowship, Duke University
2012 Democracy, Institutions, and Political Economy Summer Funding, Political Science Department, Duke University
2011 Walter T. Molano Award, Political Science Department, Duke University
2011 Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies Field Research Grant, Duke University
2011 Democracy, Institutions, and Political Economy Summer Funding, Political Science Department, Duke University
2010 Walter T. Molano Award, Political Science Department, Duke University
2009 Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Predissertation Research Grant, Duke University
2009 Democracy, Institutions, and Political Economy Summer Funding, Political Science Department, Duke University
2005 Academic Excellence Fellowship, Sempra Energy/CIDE

PRESENTATIONS

2016 “High-profile Criminal Violence. Why drug cartels murder subnational authorities and party candidates in Mexico,” with Guillermo Trejo, Workshop on “Subnational Political Violence,” Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas-Mexico City.
“Doing Business in the Context of Criminal Violence in Mexico,” with Magdalena Guzmán, Conference on “Nonviolent Strategies in Violent Settings,” Sié Center, University of Denver.
“High-risk activism: Protest amid criminal violence,” Latin American Studies Association Annual Conference, New York City.
“Indigenous Resistance to Drug Violence in Mexico. Why Indigenous Mobilization and Ethnic Autonomy Institutions Deter Criminal Violence,” with Shannan Mattiace and Guillermo Trejo, Conference on “Unequal Security in the Americas,” Brown University.
2015 “Can Drug Lords Replace the Median Voter in Democratic Elections? Evidence from Mexico’s Wild West,” with Guillermo Trejo and Javier Márquez, American Political Science Association Conference, San Francisco, CA.
“At the Polling Station: How Violence Shapes Citizen Participation and the Organization of Elections,” with Francisco Cantú, Midwest Political Science Association Conference, Chicago, IL.
“Mexico’s Drug Wars and the Remaking of Local Order: Why Criminal Organizations Murder Local Officials,” with Guillermo Trejo, Midwest Political Science Association Conference, Chicago, IL.
“Nonviolent Strategies in Violent Settings,” Sie Center, University of Denver.
“The State of Citizen Security in Mexico: 2014 in Review and the Year Ahead. Policy Implications for the Peña Nieto Administration,” Mexico Institute, Woodrow Wilson Institute, Washington D.C.
2014 “Mexico’s Drug Wars and the Remaking of Local Order: Why Criminal Organizations Murder Local Officials,” with Guillermo Trejo, Subnational Research in Comparative Politics Conference, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.
“High-risk Activism and Protest amid Violence. Evidence from Mexico,” Latin American Politics Workshop, University of Houston, Houston, TX.
“Electoral Accountability in the Midst of Violence: Evidence from Mexico,” American Political Science Association Conference, Washington D.C.
“Federalism, Drugs, and Violence. Why Inter-Governmental Conflict Stimulated Inter-Cartel Violence in Mexico,” with Guillermo Trejo, Midwest Political Science Association National Conference, Chicago, IL.
2013 “Uncertainty or Ambiguity? Sources of Variation in Ideological Placements of Political Parties,”with John Aldrich y Gregory Schober, American Political Science Association Conference, Chicago, IL.
“To Vote or Not to Vote: Elections in the Midst of Violence”, Latin American Studies Association, Washington D.C.
“To Vote or Not to Vote: Elections in the Midst of Violence”, Politics and Government Workshop, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas, Mexico City.
“To Vote or Not to Vote: Elections in the Midst of Violence”, Midwest Political Science Association National Conference, Chicago, IL.
“Votes, Drugs, and Violence. Subnational Democratization and the Onset of Inter-Cartel Wars in Mexico” with Guillermo Trejo, Midwest Political Science Association National Conference, Chicago, IL.
2011 “Security and Crime Issue Voting in Latin America”, Midwest Political Science Association National Conference, Chicago, IL.
“Citizens at Risk: Perceptions of Crime and Insecurity in Latin America”, Conference on Preference Formation, Duke University, Durham, NC.
2008 “Electoral Institutions and Democratic Consolidation in the Mexican states, 1990 2004,” with Francisco Javier Aparicio, Midwest Political Science Association National Conference, Chicago, IL.

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

2017 Lecturer, “Social Violence in Mexico and Latin America,” Program for Mexican Federal Police Leadership, CIDE-PF.
Instructor, “Political Sociology II,” B.A. in Political Science and International Relations, CIDE.
Lecturer, “Social Violence in Mexico and Latin America,” Program for Mexican Federal Police Leadership, CIDE-PF.
2016 Instructor, “Workshops for human rights activists, victims and their relatives,” El Colegio de México-CNDH, Violence and Peace Seminar.
Lecturer, “Workshops for public officials who attend victims,” El Colegio de México-CNDH, Violence and Peace Seminar.
Instructor, “Political Sociology I,” B.A. in Political Science and International Relations, CIDE.
Instructor, “Systematization of Original Databases,” Master in Journalism and Public Affairs, CIDE.
2015 Instructor, Data Analysis for Human Rights (with Guillermo Trejo). University of Notre Dame. Spring Semester.
Lecturer, Human Rights and Peace Building Certificate, Centro  Nacional  de  Comunicación Social-Centro Cultural de España en México-Universidad del Claustro de Sor Juana.
2013 Teaching assistant for Prof. Chris Johnston, “Introduction to Political Inquiry,” Duke University.
2011 Teaching assistant for Prof. Margaret Mackean, “Democracy, Development, and Violence,” Duke University.
Teaching assistant for Prof. Erik Wibbels, “Globalization y Domestic Politics,” Duke University.
2010 Teaching assistant for Prof. Irina Alberro, “Introduction to Quantitative Methods,” Colegio de México.
2007 Teaching assistant for Prof. Matthew Kocher, “Introduction to Quantitative Methods,” CIDE.

FIELDWORK RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

2014 Focus groups and in-depth interviews with public officials and beneficiaries of crime prevention programs in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua y Monterrey, Nuevo León.
2012 In-depth interviews with victims of crime and participants of marches for peace in the states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Guerrero, Jalisco, Morelos and Nuevo León.
2011 Participation in the March for Peace (May 5-8, 2011) and the Caravan for Peace (June 2011), organized by the Movement for Peace with Justice and Dignity.

CONSULTING EXPERIENCE

2016-2017 Project Coordinator of the “Systematization, Analysis and Visualization of Attacks against Human Rights Defenders and Journalists in Mexico” project, in collaboration with the National Digital Strategy, the National Laboratory for Public Policy (LNPP), and CIDE.

2017 World Summit on the Information (WSIS) Champion, Category 17.

2014 Local senior consultant for Democracy International’s evaluation of USAID crime prevention programs in Mexico.
2013-2015 Security consultant for México Evalúa.

PROFESSIONAL SERVICE

Reviewer for the American Political Science Review, European Journal of Political Research, Latin American Research Review, Latin American Politics and Society, Política y Gobierno.

 VOLUNTEER EXPERIENCE

2011-2014 Movement for Peace with Justice and Dignity, Mexico

Collaborated in the systematization of denunciations of cases of murders and disappearances, documented cases of victimization, and accompanied victims’ processes of denunciation of crimes with local public prosecutors

LANGUAGES

Spanish (Native)

English (Fluent)

French (Basic)

SOFTWARE

Stata (Advanced)

R (Basic)

ArcGIS (Intermediate)

LaTex (Intermediate)

AFFILIATIONS

American Political Science Association
Latin American Studies Association